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Aqeedah   Leave a comment


PRINCIPLAES OF AQEEDAH
The additional text in italics after each point is a summary of the words of Ibn Taymiyyah in his Majmoo’ al-Fataawaa 
 
1. Everything which is in accord with the Book and the Authentic Sunnah is accepted by them and everything which is in opposition to it is treated as false by them.
 
The first thing which distinguishes the Ahl us-Sunnah wal- Jamaa’ah from all those besides them is the methodology with which they acquire their sciences (of the Deen) and the source of the Truth from which they derive their beliefs, concepts, acions of worship, dealings (with the people), their mode of conduct and their manners. The source of Knowledge and Truth in all the various branches of knowledge with the Ahl us-Sunnah is the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of His Messenger (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) . No words other than the words of Allaah come first and no guidance other that the guidance of the Messenger (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) comes first. 
 
2. There is no one who is free from making mistakes (in the Deen) except the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu-alaihi-wasallam).
The Ahl us-Sunnah do not regard anyone as being safe from error as regards the Deen except the Messenger (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) . The scholars are not free from making mistakes but rather the words of everyone can either be accepted or rejected except those of the Messenger (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) . Therefore the words and statements of the scholars of the Ahl us-Sunnah by necessity follow or are in accordance with the Sunnah of the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) and do not precede or go ahead of it. 
 
3. The Ijmaa’ (concensus) of the Salaf us-Saalih (Pious Predecessors) is regarded as a Sharee’ah proof which is necessary to hold on to for those who come after them.
 
And the Ahl us-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah believe that the most knowledgeable of the creation as regards the Deen of Allaah after the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) are the Companions (ra) and the Salaf us-Saalih. Whatever they united/agreed upon from any of the affairs or matters of the Deen is free from being wrong and it is not [permissible] for anyone to leave it. Their Ijmaa is a Sharee’ah proof which it is obligatory to hold on to for those who come after them. All those who stick to their Ijmaa are [therefore] those who adhere strictly to their Jamaa’ah (group). 
 
4. They do not accept or affirm any speech or Ijtihaad (Jurisprudence) except after having thrown it against these three sources: The Book, the Authentic Sunnah and Ijmaa’ of the Salaf.
 
The Ahl us-Sunnah hold on to the [Sunnah] which the Messenger (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) came with and adhere to the [Jamaa’ah] of the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) and they are the Companions (ra) and whoever follows their way and adopts their methodology. They do not accept any Ijtihaad or any speech regardless of whom it comes from except after having referred it to the Book, the Authentic Sunnah and the Ijmaa of the Salaf. 
 
5. They do not contradict the Qur’aan or the Sunnah with their ‘Aql (Intellect) or opinions or analogies.
 
And (therefore) the Ahl us-Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah do not rely upon, follow or cling except to the knowledge and the practise of the Salaf us-Saalih and whoever takes from them, sticks to their jamaa’ah and travels upon their trail and binds (and restricts) himself to their principles/foundations. And this is because the Companions (ra) learnt the tafseer (explanation) of the Qur’an and the Hadeeth from the Messenger (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) , then taught it to the Taabi’een but did not put themselves before Allaah and His Messenger with an opinion, ones taste, ones intellect, sudden enlightenment (like that of the soofees) or other such things. 
 
6. The Jamaa’ah (The Group that is united upon the Truth, which the Messenger (sallallaahu-alaihi-wasallam) came with, in terms of speech and action) is the means of Deliverance in this life and in the Hereafter.
 
The Ahl us-Sunnah therefore, hold fast to the Jamaa’ah of the Messenger (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) turning away from the places of separation and difference, clinging tightly to the totality of the Book, the Sunnah and Ijmaa (unanimous agreement of the companions), whilst being far from the places of obscurity and unclarity (in the Book and the Sunnah) which separates and divides the united. And (this is because) the Jamaa’ah in (their estimation) is the means of Deliverance in this life and the Hereafter. 
 
7. They do not make obligatory the acquaintance with a particular type of knowledge upon he who is incapable and which is befitting for the capable person only.
 
And the Ahl us-Sunnah believe in what the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) came with in its entirety, however, they differentiate between the one who is capable and the one who is not with regards to knowing what the Messenger (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) came with in a detailed way. And this is a mighty principle: many trials have befallen (the Ummah) due to absence of its understanding.

Peace and Blessings upon the Messenger of Allah, upon his Companions (ra) and all those who follow in their footsteps until the Day of Resurrection

The Aqeedah Poem – Ibn abi Dawood

Hold tightly to the rope of Allaah and the guidance, and do not be an innovator so that you might be successful.

And practice your religion based on the book of Allaah and the sunnah, which have come from the Messenger of Allaah, so you will be saved and earn reward.

And say; Not a created thing is the speech of our Great King, such was the religious position of the pious ones who spoke well.

And do not be a person who takes no position on the Qur’aan, as did the followers of Jahm, and they had been too lax.

And do not say that the Qur’aan is created, meaning; It’s recitation, since the speech of Allaah, through it’s recitation is made clear.

And say; Allaah will make Himself visible to all creation openly, just as the full moon is not hard to see, and your Lord will be seen more clearly.

And He was not born, nor has He fathered anyone, nor is there anything similar to Him, Exalted be The Glorified One.

And Jahmee rejects this however, we have, as a testimony to the truth for what we say, Ahadeeth that clarifies it.

Jareer narrated it, from the words of Muhammed, so say what He said about that, and you will be successful.

And perhaps a Jahmee might deny His (Allaah’s) right hand as well, while both His hands are giving out all kinds of bounties.

And say; The Ever Compelling descends each night, without asking for exact details (I.e. we don’t ask “How”),

Magnificent is The One God, and most worthy of praise, down to the lowest heaven, granting bounties from His grace, as the gates of heaven are opened and spread widely,

He says; Is there anyone seeking forgiveness, who would like to meet a Forgiver?

Or anyone seeking bounties of goodness and provisions, so he could be given what he requests?

A group have reported this, whos reports are not to be rejected, but sadly, some have went wrong and did not believe them, marring themselves.

And say; Indeed the best of the people after Muhammad, were his two deputies of old, and then ‘Uthmaan, according to the most correct position, and the forth of them, was the best of creation after them; ‘Alî, the companion of goodness, through goodness he was successful.

Those are the people, those who have no doubt about, upon the great camels of Firdous, shining brightly and roaming about, Sa’eed, Sad, Ibn ‘Auth, Talha, Ameer Afihr and Zubayr the praiseworthy, and speak with the best terms about the companions, all of them,

and do not be one who speaks ill of them, pointing out their faults, and criticising, since the clear revelation has spoken about their excellence, and in al-Fath, verses about the companions, praising them.

And regarding the pre-ordained Qadr; Be convienced, since it is the pillars that combines many affairs of the religion and the religion encompasses much.

And do not reject out of ignorance, the belief of Naqeer and munkar, or the pool, or the scales, surely, you are being advised sincerely.

And say; Allaah, The Great, will remove from His grace, out of the fire burned severily who will then be tossed in to the river of firdous where they will regain life by it’s water like a seed taken by a flood that comes and wipes things away with it’s abundant water.

And surely the Messenger of Allaah will intercede, and speak about the punishments of the grave, that is the truth made clear.

And do not make takfeer of those who pray, even if they commit sins, since all of them commit sins, while the owner of the throne forgives graciously.

And do not hold the belief like that of the Khawaarij, since it is the position held by only those who desire it, and it is destructive and disgraceful.

And do not be a murjî, one who plays games with his religion, surely the murji is joking about the religion.

And say; Emaan consists of statements, intentions and actions, according to the explicit statement of the Prophet, and it decreases sometimes due to disobedience, and sometimes because of obedience it grows, and on the scale it will outweigh other things.

And keep yourself from the opinions of the people and their stances, since the stance of the Messenger of Allaah is more befitting and easier on ones chest.

And do not be from those who play games with their religion; Attacking the people of Hadeeth, reviling them,

if you keep this belief all your life, O Holder of this poem, you will be upon goodness, day (in and day out?).

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Posted January 4, 2011 by thesunnahway in Aqeedah

Eman comprises of speech, action and beliefs and it increases and decreases   Leave a comment


Sharh us-Sunnah
by Al-Barbahaaree

27: Eemaan (Faith) comprises of speech, action and beliefs and it increases and decreases.

To have Faith that Eemaan (Faith) comprises of speech, action and beliefs. It increases and decreases. It increases as Allah wills and may decrease to the extent that nothing remains of it[1].

NOTES

 

1. Al-Laalikaa’ee reports, in Sharh Usool I’tiqaad Ahlis-Sunnah (5/958/no.1737), that ‘Abd ar-Razzaaq (as-San’aanee) said, “I met seventy Shaikhs, from amongst them are Ma’mar, al-Awzaa’ee, ath-Thawree, al-Waleed ibn Muhammad al-Quraashee, Yazeed ibn as-Saa’ib, Hammaad ibn Salamah, Hammaad ibn Zayd, Sufyaan ibn ‘Uyainah, Shu’ayb ibn Harb, Wakee’ ibn al-Jarrah, Maalik ibn Anas, Ibn Abee Laylaa, Isma’eel ibn ‘Ayyaash, al-Waleed ibn Muslim and those I have not named, all of them saying: Faith is saying and action, it increases and decreases.”

Abdullah ibn Ahmad reports in as-Sunnah (no.612): My father narrated to me: Abu Salamah al-Khuzaa’ee related to us, saying, “Maalik, Shareek, Abu Bakr ibn ‘Ayyaash, ‘Abdul-‘Azeez ibn Abee Salamah, Hammaad ibn Salamah and Hammaad ibn Zayd said, ‘Faith is conviction, declaration and action.’ ”

Al-Laalikaa’ee reports (5/959/no.1740) that ‘Uqbah ibn ‘Alqamah said: I asked al-Awzaa’ee about Faith; can it increase? He said, “Yes, until it becomes like the mountains.” I said, ‘Can it decrease?’ He said, “Yes, even until nothing remains of it.”

Amongst the verses quoted by the scholars as proof for the fact that faith increases are: Aayah 173 of Soorah Aali-‘Imraan, Aayah 4 of Soorah al-Fath and Aayah 124 of Soorah at-Tawbah.

MY NOTES FROM CLASS:

Belief in heart is suffient for imaan say Jahm bin Safwaan, this is baatil falsehood because if this was the case Firawn would have been a believer if imaan was just in heart. Allah said in soorah Al Naml aya 14 “And they rejected those Signs in iniquity and arrogance, though their souls were convinced thereof:”

Meaning: They denied it with their tongue but they are absoulutely certain of it in the heart. They deny it because of oppression. But they know. Another statement in surah Israh by moses when says to firawn you know I am prophet.

Chrstians would have been believers daleel for this is in surah al Baqrah 146 verse

146. Those to whom We gave the Scripture (Jews and Christians) recognise him (Muhammad (saw) or the Ka’bah at Makkah) as they recongise their sons. But verily, a party of them conceal the truth while they know it – [i.e. the qualities of Muhammad (saw) which are written in the Taurat (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel)].

So if it was sufficient enough that imaan is just belief in the heart the jews and the christians would have been believers. As well as Abu Talib the father of Ali and uncle of the prophet (saw). Abu Talib mentioned in poetry he said: in lines of poetry], “I know that the religion of Muhammad, Is the best of all the religions of mankind. We I not to be scolded and abused, I would have confessed it openly.” Abu Talib was not considered a believer, some sufis say he was a believer, they say he defended the prophet was his uncle. Reality is that the prophet (saw) said in Bukhari and other hadiths that he will supplicate for his uncle so Allah swt puts him the least worse place in hell fire so much so that his sandles would be hot coal burning his brain. Is that case of someone who dies upon imaan? There are books written by the ulma that Abu Talib died as a disbeliver. Books written that the sahabaha said Verily he died upon the religion of his forfathers. When Abu Tahlib died the prophet (Saw) was extremely sad because he died upon kufuur it was around the same time that Khadijah died. This is in the seerah. Allah swt revealed soorah Yusuf and others to strengthen the prophet (saw).

If imaan was just in the heart it would also imply that the Pharoah and his people were believers since they knew that Moses and Aaron, peace and blessings of Allah be on them, were true prophets even though they denied them. This is clear from what Moses said to the Pharoah, “You know very well that these things have been sent down by none but the Lord of the heavens and the earth as eye-opening evidence” (al-Isra 102). The People of the book knew that Muhammad was the Prophet just as they knew their own sons, but they were not believers in him. In fact, they were his deniers and opponents.

 

Even Iblis, also, would be a perfect believer according to al-Jahm’s view. He did not plead ignorance of Allah. He knew him well as he said, “My Lord, give me then respite till the Day the dead are raised” (Al-Hijr 36), “My Lord, because you have put me in the wrong.” (Saad 82). For al-Jahm, kufr is ignorance of Allah. No one, however, is more ignorant of Allah than him, for he reduces Allah to a Being as such and strips Him of all His attributes. There can be no greater ignorance than this. He is therefore a disbeliever (kafir) according to his own testimony. (Ibn Abu al-Izz, vol. 2, pp. 459-462)

With that being said: The belief of the Maturdi that imaan is just in the heart is therefore incorrect.

IMAAN BEING ACTION, STATEMENT AND BELIEF this is the position of Ahlul sunnah wal jammah as regards to the definition of imaan. Proof of imaan being statement of the tongue Hadith of Jibril explains imaan, hadith of Nawai, Hadith of Omar,picking up harm from the road.

The author imaam Barbaharharee also mentiones (isaba) being with accordance to the sunnah

Allah said to the prophet:

Allah Almighty says, “Say: ‘If you love Allah, then follow me and Allah will love you and forgive you for your wrong actions, Allah is Ever-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” (3:31)

So in order to be a true believer you have to follow the prophet (saw). The sunnah is revealtion just like the Quran is revealtion. There is no doubt that there is a difference. In the sense that you cant recite a hadith in the salaah, in the sense that with reciting the hadith you dont get the same reward as reciting the Quran, you dont have to be in wadu to recite hadith, a person that is in junub cant recite Quran, Quran has a rhytmatic tone. So there are many differences between the sunnah and the Quran but they are both revealtion.

The companions mentioned that Jabril (as) used to desecend and inform the prophet (Saw) of the sunnah just like he used to descend and inform him of the Quran. There were times when the prophet (saw) would be asked a question and he would wait until the answer came to him from Jabril, thats in the sunnah not in the Quran. So there is no doubt that adherence to the sunnah is part of faith. Without the sunnah we wouldnt know how many rakahs the salaahs are except by following the sunnah. So individuals who say that following the sunnah is only recommended are absoulutely wrong. From the sunnah there is that which is obligatory, from the sunnah there is that which is recommended. During the times of the shabaha they held everything from the sunnah to be obligatory.

Daleel: “It is not for any believer, man or woman, when Allah and His Messenger (SAAW) have decreed a matter, to have the choice in their affair. And whosoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger (SAAW) he has gone astray into manifest error.” [Al-Ahzab: 36].

The believing man and beliving woman when they hear qalaalah qalaala rasool they submit.

IMAN INCREASES AND DECREASES. This is important that we believe this and act upon it. It is important that an individual monitors their imaan. Individual protect their car because they want it to last, when your car is doomed you can buy another or rent one or borrow, but the reality is that if your imaan dies how can you gurantee it will ever live again, you cant get another heart. It does not stand still. The affiar with regards to the heart and imaan is very important. Ibnul Qayyum rahamahullaah satated this. Allah swt said verily we know those who are going forward and those who are going backwards. You have to be cautious of montioring your imaan. You have to that which increases your imaan. There are many verses in Quran about imaan increasing and decreasing (surah Maryam verse 76), (surah Anfal verse 2) and the hadith “He who Allah wants good for, He gives him understanding of the deen (religion).”

[Hadeeth reported by Bukhaari and Muslim].

Sheikh Abdurahman as-Sa’dee (rahmahullah said: This hadeeth is one of the greatest (proofs of the) superiority of

(beneficial) knowledge. In it is (the understanding) that beneficial

knowledge is both a sign of happiness for the servant and a sign that Allah wants good for him. Understanding of the religion encompasses the understanding of the fundamental principles of Emaan, the legislative matters andrulings of Islaam, as well as the realities of Ihsaan. This is because the Deen encompasses all three of these affairs. Like in the hadeeth of Jibreel when he (‘alaihis salaam) asked the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) about Emaan, Islaam and Ihsaan.  He (sallAllaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) answered him by outlining each of them. He (sallAllaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) explained Emaan by Whoever Allah wants good for, He gives him understanding of the Deen (religion) (stating) its six principles (i.e. the six pillars of Emaan), and Islaam by (stating) its five principles (i.e. the five pillars of Islaam), andIhsaan by his (sallAllaahu ‘alaihi wasallam’s) statement, “To worship Allah as if you see Him and although you donot see him, know that He sees you.” So entering into this is the servants understanding of ‘Aqeedah and knowing the way of the Salaf with regards to it, and (having both) an outward and inward conviction for it. As well asknowing the way of those (ignorant groups) who differed, went astray, and go against the way of the Salaf and knowing clearlytheir deviation from the Kitaab and Sunnah. Fiqh (Islaamic Jurisprudence) is also entered into this; its fundamental principles (usool) and it subsidiary categories (faroo’a). Knowing the rulings with regards to the acts ofworship, mutual dealings, crimes/punishments and other than this. Also entering into it is the understanding of the realities of Emaan. The knowledge of how one behaves properly towards Allah in accordance with the Kitaab and Sunnah. Likewise, entering into it is the knowledge of every (science) that would aid him in understanding the religion. Like the science of the Arabic language and all of its branches. So whoever Allah wants good for, He gives them understanding of these (previously mentioned) affairs and success in them. The understanding of the hadeeth also points to (the fact) that verily, Allah does not want good for the one who turns away from these sciences in totality. This is due to the individual’s denial of (these) means and ways of obtaining good and earning happiness. Source:http://www.salaficentre.co.uk/articles/aqeedah/fiqh_of_the_deen.pdf

Posted January 4, 2011 by thesunnahway in Aqeedah

Meaning of Emaan-A REFUTATION OF THE   Leave a comment


Taken from CHAPTER TWO Foundations of the Sunnah by Ahmad ibn Hanbal

ON THE MEANING OF EMAAN – A REFUTATION OF THE

MU’TAZILAH OF TODAY

Al-Haafidh Ibn Hajar (d. 853H) said, “Eemaan in the language means’ tasdeeq’ (attesting to the truth of something). In the Sharee’ah it means ‘tasdeeq’ (attesting to the truth) of what the Messenger (swallallahu alaihi wasallam) brought from his Lord, and this much is agreed upon. Then there is a difference. Is anything else a condition on top of that? Such as stating this eemaan upon the tongue, as well as it being in the heart, or action upon what is attested to by doing what is ordered and leaving what is forbidden?” Up until where al-Haafidh said, “So since he was the Imaam of the Sunnah in his time. As for the head of those who were his opponents, Ahmad ibn Ahee Duwaad, who was the judge of all the judges in the world — then nobody marked or gave attention to his death. When he died no one accompanied his funeral but a small number of the ruler’s helpers. Likewise al-Haarith ibn Asad al-Muhaasibee, despite his abstemiousness and piety, no one prayed over him except three or four people. Likewise Bishr ibn Ghiyaath al-Mareesee, only a very small group of people prayed over him. So Allaah it is who is in command of the affairs, before and after.” the Salaf say: Eemaan is ‘aqeedah in the heart, statement of the tongue and action of the limbs. They mean by this that actions are a condition for its completeness. So from here comes their saying that it increases and decreases — as will follow.

The Murji’ah say: ‘It is ‘aqeedah and statement of the tongue only.’

The Karraamiyyah say: ‘It is statement of the tongue

only.’ And the Mu’tazilah say: ‘It is action, statement and

‘aqeedah.’ But the difference between the Mu’tazilah and the

Salaf is that the Mu’tazilah make actions a condition for the

correctness of eemaan, whereas the Salaf make it a condition

for its completeness.

As for the second point, then the Salaf hold that eemaan increases and decreases, whereas most of the people of kalaam (theological rhetoric) reject this by saying that if it is liable to Scholars of the Sunnah are agreed that actions are a part of eemaan … and they say, ‘Indeed eemaan is saying, action and ‘aqeedah. It increases with obedience and decreases with disobedience.” 132 Having understood this, the falsehood of those claiming to have eemaan in the above-mentioned issues and others like them whilst denying having ‘aqeedah in them, will become very clear. Since our Salafus-Saalih held that the root of eemaan in such issues is to have ‘aqeedah in them — so if there is no ‘aqeedah with respect to these issues then, by default, there is no eemaan in them either.

FOOT NOTES

128 Ibn Katheer said in Al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah (10/342), “Allaahconfirmed this saying of Ahmad, since he was the Imaam of the Sunnah

in his time. As for the head of those who were his opponents, Ahmad ibn

Ahee Duwaad, who was the judge of all the judges in the world — then

nobody marked or gave attention to his death. When he died no one

accompanied his funeral but a small number of the ruler’s helpers.

Likewise al-Haarith ibn Asad al-Muhaasibee, despite his abstemiousness

and piety, no one prayed over him except three or four people. Likewise

Bishr ibn Ghiyaath al-Mareesee, only a very small group of people

prayed over him. So Allaah it is who is in command of the affairs, before

and after.”

129 Taken from Siyar A’laamin-Nubataa, vol. II, pp. 177-358.

130The whole of this biography was translated by Aboo Talhah Daawoodibn Ronald Burbank, except for the narration of Sulaymaan as-Sijzee,

which was translated by Amjad ibn Muhammad Rafiq.

131Abridged from Fathul-Baaree, 1/60-61

Posted January 4, 2011 by thesunnahway in Aqeedah

Preserving the Usool   Leave a comment


Shaikh Muhammad Bin Saalih al-Uthaimeen [1] – from the Book Tuqrîbut-Tadmuriyyah (pp.7.14)

Source: Al-Ibaanah Magazine, Issue No.2 – Rabi’ul-Awwal 1416H / August 1995

The Messenger of Allaah explained to the people -completely and clearly-what their Lord had revealed for them; both the detailed matters and the important ones, the apparent matters and the hidden ones, to such an extent that he taught them what they needed to know with respect to matters of eating, drinking, marriage, clothing and housing. So he taught them the ettiquettes of eating, drinking and relieving one’s self; the ettiquettes of marriage; the ettiquettes of clothing and of entering and leaving the house – just as he taught them what they needed to know with regard to the worship of Allaah -The Mighty and Majestic-such as purification, Prayer, Zakaah, fasting, Pilgrimage and other than this.

He taught them what they needed to know with regard to the social behaviour with the people, such as kindness to parents, keeping ties of kinship, good companionship with friends and neighbours and other than this.He taught them how to conduct themselves in matters of buying and selling, pawning, leaving deposits, leasing, renting, giving and receiving donations, and other such matter, to such an extent that Abu Dharr(rta) said: “Indeed the Messenger of Allaah passed away and there is not a bird flapping its wings in the sky, except that he mentioned to us some knowledge about it” (2)

Foundations of the Deen

Salmaan al-Farsee (rta) narrated that it was said to him:Your Prophet has taught you everything, even how to relieve yourselves?So he said to them:”Yes indeed! And he has prohibited us from facing the qiblah (direction of prayer) whilst relieving ourselves…”(3) Along with this, he also taught them the foundation of all these acts of worship, manners and social interactions.

This foundation being what the worshippers hold as ‘aqeedah (belief) concerning Allaah-the deity who is worshipped and who alone deservs to be worshippped -regarding His Dhaat (Essence), His Names, His Attributes and His Actions, and what follows from this regard to His Universal Laws and His prescribed Laws, which is based upon His ultimate Wisdom and utmost mercy.The Companions learnt all this from the Prophet, clearly and without any ambiguity, and all this was built upon the complete “Tawheed” of Allaah (to single out Allaah alone for worship), having as its foundations two great pillars: Affirmation and Negation.

As for affirmation: It is affirming what is due to Allaah-the Most High-from the rights of His Lordship, worship, and His names, attributes and actions.

As for negation: Then it is negating any partners to Allaah-the Most High-in all that is due to Him.

The People of Sunnah

Those who followed in goodness (ie in aqeedah and manhaj) from those who reached the period of the companions , or those who came after them from the Imaams of guidance-who deserved the Pleasure of Allaah – remained upon this path, as Allaah-the Most High-said:

“The first to embrace Islaam from the Muhaajireen(those who migrated from Makkah to al-Madeenah) and the Ansaar(those who lived in al-Madeenah and aided them after migration) and those who follow them in goodness(correct aqeedah and manhaj).Allaah is well pleased with them, as they are well pleased with Him.He has prepared for them Gardens beneath which rivers flow, to dwell therein forever.This is the suporeme achievement”(4)

Then they were followed by those who came later, being blind to the truth, or pretending to be blind to the truth.So they went astray and led others astray either due to inabilities or shortcomings, or due to enmity and oppression. They innovated in the Deen of Allaah -the Most High – that which did not belong to it, in matters of aqeedah (beliefs), ibaadah (acts of worship) and sulook (manners).They did this by altering the texts of the Book and the Sunnah; and of it was possible, they rejected them entirely!

Brief History of the Innovated Sects

Shaykh ul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah ( d.728H) said: “And know that most of the innovations connected to ‘uloom(sciences) and acts of worship occured in this Ummah at the end of the period of the Rightly guided Khaleefahs; just asa the Prophet informed, when he said: “Those of you who live long after me will see a great deal of differences. So Hold fast to my Sunnah and the Sunnah of the Rightly Guided Khaleefahs after me”…So when the period of the Rightly Guided Khaleefahs had passed and the rule of kingship appeared, deficiencies appeared in the leaders, and therefore deficiency spread also to the people of knowledge and Deen.So during the end of the rule of ‘Alee (rta) – the innovation of the Khwaarij (5) and Raafidah (6) appeared; this being connected to the issue of leadership and khilaafah, and what was connected to this from actions and Shareeah rulings.

The kingship of Mu’aawiyah was a kingship of mercy, so when it passed, the rule of Yazeed came and fitnah (trials and discord) took place within it: the killling of al-Husayn in Iraaq, the fitnah of the people of Hurrah in al-Madeenah and the seige of Makkah when ‘Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr made his stand. Then Yazeed passed away and the Ummah split-up. Ibn az-Zubayr in the Hijaaz, Banu Hakam in ash-Shaam (Syria, Jordan and Palestine) and the jump to power of Mukhtaar ibn Abee’Ubayd and others in ‘Iraaq. All of this took place at the end of the period of the Companions, when there only remained the likes of ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abaas, ‘Abdullah ibn Umar, Jaabir ibn ‘Abdullah, Abu Saeed al-Khudree and others. The innovations of the Qadarriyah (7) and the Murjiah (8) then occured and it was refused by those Companions who remained, as they had, along with others, refuted the innovations of the Khawaarij and the Raafidah.

A Brief Summary

Ibn al-Qayyim (d.751H) (rh) said: “The innovation of the Qadariyyah started at the end of the period of the Companions. So those that remained at the end of the periods of the Companions.So those who remained at that time, such as ‘Abdullah ibn Umar, Ibn Abbas, and their like, oppsed and refuted it. Then the innovation of the Murjiah occured, after the period of the Companions, so those of the major ‘Tabiyoon who faced it, refuted it.Then came the innovation of the ‘Jahyimmah’ (9) after the passing away of the Tabbi’oon. Its evil reached alarming proportions and the matter had become dire during the age of the Imaams such as Ahmad (d.241H) and those with him.There appeared after this, the innovation of hulool (incarnation), this appeared with, and in the time of al-Hallaaj.

So whenever Shaytaan brought about an innovation from these innovations, or from other than them, Allaah established from His party an army, those who refuted it and warned the Muslims against it-all for the sake of sincerity and sincere advice for Allaah, His book, His Messenger and the people of Islaam”(11)

Compilation of the Aqeedah

Al-Haafidh Ibn Hajr (d.852H) (rh) said: “From that which occured was:compilation of hadeeth, then tafseer, then the compilation of issues of fiqh (jurisprudence) eminating from pure opinion, and then the compilation of matters related to actions of the heart.

As for the firts matter; it was opposed by ‘Umaar, Abu Moosaa and a few others whilst the majority allowed it. As for the second:It was oppsed by a group from the Tabioon such as Imaam ash-Sha’bee(d.104H) and a small group. Imaam Ahmad’s opposition of this intensified.

Also from that which occured was the compilation of the sayings about Usool ud-Deen (fundamentals of the Deen). Some embarked to affirm it (ie the attributes of Allaah), whilst others negated it. The former went to the extent of making tashbeeh (resembling Allaah to his creation), whilst the latter went to the extent of making ta’teel (denying the attributes of Allah). The rejection of this from the Salaf such as Abu Haneefah(d.150H), Abu Yoosuf(d.182H) and ash-Shaafiee(d.204H), and their sayings with regards to censuring the people of Kalaam (philosphical speech and theology) is well known. The reason for such censure was that the people of ‘Kalaaam’ spoke about those matters which both the Prophet and his Companions remained quiet about. It is established from Maalik(d.179H) that there did not exist at the time of the Prophet nor that of AbuBakr (rta) or Umar (rta), anything from these desires – meaning: the innovation of the Khawaarij, the Raafidah and the Qadiriyyah. Indeed, those who came after the first three excellent generations expanded upon matters which the Imaams of the Tabioon and those who followed them, rejected.

The people of Kalaam did not content themselves, until they filled the Deen with issues and the sayings of the philosphers. They made this philoshopy the basis and the fundamental principle to which everything was refered back to, and all that which opposed it from the narrations (of the Prophet, his Companions and the Salaf who followd them) then ta’weel (false interpretation ) was made of them, even if they were averse to the result. Nor did they content themselves with just this.They claimed that what they had compiled was the noblest branch of knowledge and the most deserving to be acquired; and that those who did not use what they had laid down, then they were from the laymen and the ignorant ones.

So delight is for the one who clings to what the Salaf were upon, and distances himself from the innovations that the khalaf (the latecomers who oppsed the aqeedah and manhaj of the Salaf) introduced.However, if one cannot keep away from it, then let him take only that which he needs and let the way of the Salaf be his intended goal.”(12)

Notes

(1)From the Shayk’s introduction to his book:Taqreebut-Tadmuriyyah (pp.7-14) -slightl edited.

(2) Saheeh:Related by Ahmad (5/153), at-Tiyaalasee(n0.479)and at-Tabaranee in al-Kabeer(no.1647).Its isnaad is saheeh)

(3)Related by Muslim(1/152) and Abu Dawood(no.8)

(4)Soorah at-Tawbah 9:100

(5)The Khawaarij were the first sect in Islam to split from the way of the Prophet and his Companions.They arose in the khilaafah of ‘Alee (rta) making khurooj (rebellion) against him, before the arbitration between him and Muawiyah (rta).From their false aqeedah (beliefs) is:allowing rebellion against the legitimate Muslim ruler-whether pious or wicked , and declaring the Muslim to be kaafir (disbeliever) due to a commission of a major sin. They were discussed by the Prophet as the Dogs of Hellfire. Refer to Maqaalaatul-Islaamiyeen(1/168) of Abul-Hasan ash-Asharee, al-Bidaayah(8/22-44) of Ibn Katheer and Fathul-Baree(12/282-302) of Ibn Hajr.

(6) The Raafidah (the rejectors) are an extreme sect of the Sheeah who rejected Zayd ibn Alee ibn ‘Alee ibn al-Husayn due to his refusal to condemn Abu Bakr and Umar (rta).They rapidly deteriorated in ‘aqeedah’, morals and Deen-until the present day-where their beliefs are those represented by the Ithna Ashariyyah Shee’ahs of Iraan. From their false beliefs are: declaring all but three or five of the companions to be disbelievers, the belief that their imaams have knowledge of the Unseen past, present and future, considering the imaamah to be one of the main pillars of eemaan (faith) and the incompleteness of the Quraan. Refer to: Maqalaatul-Islamiyeen (1/65), al-Farq baynal-Firaq (no.21) of Abdul-Qaahir al-Baghdaadee and Talbees Iblees (pp.94-100) of Ibn ul-Jawzee.

(7)The Qadariyyah are the follwers of Mabad ibn al-Juhanee, and from their false beliefs are; that Allah has no prior knowledge of anything until it come into existence; that it is people -and not Allah -who are creators of their own actions, denying aqeedah in the Punishment of the Grave, and denying that the authentic hadeeth is an evidence for the aqeedah, unless it is related in mutaawatir form. Refer to al-Milal wan-Nihal(1/72) of ash-Shahrastaanee and Sawnul-Mantaq wal-Kalaam (p.160) of as-Suyotee.

(8) The Murjiaah are those who reject that actions are a part of eemaan (faith) and they say that eemaan is affirmation of the heart and atatement of the tingue only.The extreme from amonngst them limit eemaan to belief of the heart only .They also deny that eemaan increases and decreases.Refer to al-Maqaalat (1/214) and al-Farq baynal-Firaq (p.202)

(9) The Jahyimmah are the followers of Jahm ibn Safwaan, who unleashed upon this Ummah the horrific innovation of ta’teel (denial of Allah’s attributes) either directly, or by twisting the meaning of Hand of Allah to mean:His power and generosity. They also deny that Allah is above creation, above His Throne, as well as holding the belief that Paradise and Hellfire are not ever-lasting. Refer to ar-Radd ‘alal-Jahyimmah by Imaam Ahmad and also ad-Daarimee and al-Ibaanah (p.141) of Abdul-Hasan al-Assharee.

(10) Majmooul-Fataawaa (10/354-368) of Ibn Taymiyyah.

(11) Tadheeb Sunan Abee Dawood (7/61) of Ibn al-Qayyim.

(12) FathulBaree (13/253) of Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalaanee.

(13) Ar-Radd ‘alal-Jahyimmah waz-Zaanadiqah( p.2) of Imaam Ahmad.

Posted January 3, 2011 by thesunnahway in Aqeedah

Can the dead hear?   Leave a comment


A questioner asked:

Can the dead hear, (I was under the impression they couldn’t)…? Seeking waseela with saints (while acknowledging that Allah gives all)? I basicaly need to know what the view is on them, and if there were known ikhtilaaf regarding any, or ijma regarding any? recommended sites or links, or books about them…

____________The issue of saints and the dead hearing in Islam By Abul-‘Abbaas Moosaa Richardson_______

1.wa ‘alaykumus-salaamu wa rahmatullaahi.

In the Name of Allaah, the Most Merciful… May His Salaat and Salaam be upon His Messenger…

Allaah the Most High has said, what means:

“Surely you can not make those in the graves hear” (Faatir 35:22)

So here is the general rule – the dead do not hear, as stated clearly by the Knower of all things.

Then, there are some specific exemptions from this general rule, like the defeated enemies of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) being addressed in the well at Badr, and the dead hearing the footsteps of those at their burial walking away. These two specific exemptions have been authentically reported by the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam).

Combining the texts is quite simple, from the easiest ways of combining texts that some people feel have some kind of contradiction is a principle called “‘Aamm and khaass”. The general rule has been stated by Allaah in His Book, and VERY specific cases were exempted from that generality.

So the dead can not hear – as a general rule – however, at the time of burial, the deceased can hear the footsteps of those walking away from his burial.

And again, the dead can not hear – as a general rule – however, at the time of defeat, the Prophets would declare the promise of Allaah to be true, and ask the defeated enemies who were killed to testify to that. (NOTE: without waiting for an answer!!)

A simple question here:

Could these two texts allow us to consider the Statement of Allaah to be abrogated?

The answer:

That would mean abrogation in a fact of the unseen, and the scholars mention that this concept is outside of the field of abrogation. It would be like Allaah saying, what means, “The dead can not hear,” and then saying, “Actually they can.” Abrogation is limited to fiqh rulings and can not be considered in issues of ‘aqeedah and information about the ghayb (like descriptions of the Hereafter or stories of the past). So to claim abrogation in this case is totally invalid.

Another question:

What kind of actions did these texts produce from the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) and the Companions, from what is authentically reported?

Did these two texts lead anyone – even one Companion – to seek things – even one thing – from the deceased? Or to do “waseelah” through any of the deceased?

More clearly – the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) was our example, showing us all ways to gain nearness to Allaah, by his example he led us! Did he go to the graves of the previous prophets and seek anything from them or through them? If that were the intended understanding in Islaam, would it not have been his job to lead by example and show us how to ask the deceased, the manners, the limits, etc. by his example as he did in all important affairs of the Religion? And would not the noble Companions have busied themselves transmitting that and acting upon it?

The answer is obvious: That was not his understanding! Or theirs! They were told of the status of some of their beloved who passed away, like Sa’d ibn Mu’aath for example, and others who were defined as people of Paradise! Obviously awliyaa’ of Allaah, beloved to Allaah, forgiven, and Allaah was pleased with them. These are the righteous of whom we have not a shred of doubt about their piety – people of Paradise who died as martyrs! So this would be the perfect occasion – if it were legislated – to request something from one of them or “through” them. Yet, look for the reports – you find nothing!

So the question arises – Is it that the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) and his companions did not understand properly and therefore they lost out on a big opportunity – while the people of “tawassul” of today who ask Allaah for things “through” the deceased have properly understood the issue in a more complete and thorough way, better in understanding and practice than those who received and witnessed the revelation as it came down!?

The answer again is clear. The Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) was correct. He was honest and dedicated to showing the Muslims every single way to draw near to Allaah, and this way is not from them.

VERY INTERESTING POINT HERE:

Actually, this way of seeking things from Allaah alone “through” the deceased was indeed practiced by some of the people in the time of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam). So I guess I have to admit it does have a precedence. The people of Makkah used to ask Allaah alone for their needs, yet they used to make “tawassul” through the deceased. Allaah recorded their reason for doing so in the Qur’aan, what means:

“They would say, ‘These are our intercessors with Allaah.'” (Yoonus 10:18)

While they believed clearly that only Allaah provided for them, only He created them and everything else, only He causes life and death, and thus, their requests were made TO Allaah alone, meaning they did not ask the deceased to forgive them, they did not ask the deceased for wealth, children, or anything, rather they only requested things from Allaah alone! Yet their request TO Allaah alone were made THROUGH others, and they said, “These are our intercessors with Allaah.” To them, this did not violate or oppose their belief in Allaah’s Sole Lordship.

So this practice that existed in the time of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam), which is similar to what many people who ascribe to Islaam today endorse – to use such and such pious person as an intercessor, and ask Allaah THROUGH him… was this practice accepted and endorsed, discouraged, or prohibited in the time of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam)?

THE CRUX

You should now acknowledge that we have arrived at the heart of the matter and the answer to confusion related to this issue is about to become very clear by Allaah’s Permission!

The answer:

This practice was not endorsed or accepted. Nor was it discouraged. Nor was it simply prohibited as being haraam! Instead, it was made as an example of THE SIN that Allaah will not forgive, THE CRIME against the Beneficent Lord that leads to eternal punishment, and THE VERY ACT that drew the lines of battle between the people of tawheed – the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) and his purely monotheist following (may Allaah be pleased with all of them) and the polytheists who refused to abandon their intercessors and make their worship for Allaah alone!

Regarding their requests from Allaah through these intercessors, they said, as Allaah recorded in His Book, what means:

“We only worship them to draw nearer to Allaah” (Az-Zumar 39:3)

Now remember when I said that this actions was “similar” to the practice of some of the people who ascribe to Islaam today who endorse this sort of so-called “tawassul”… I did not say “identical” but rather “similar” for a reason. There are some very important differences between them and the people of today.

1) The people in the time of the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) knew what they were doing was worship, and they knew that it was in direct contradiction to the message of “laa ilaaha ill-Allaah” they were being invited to, and thus they fought him over it with their lives and wealth.

2) The people of today who do this while ascribing to Islaam believe their practice is endorsed by Islaam!! And they believe they are worshipping Allaah upon tawheed! So, as pointed out by our scholars, the people of today who worship Allaah “through” the deceased are more ignorant of the meaning of Islaam than the polytheists of Makkah who fought against our Messenger (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam)!

3) Furthermore, the people of today sometimes use intercessors that were irreligious themselves, sometimes even polytheists who taught shirk, while the people of Makkah used angels and prophets to intercede for them (which was/is still shirk).

From these few points, you can see how even the polytheists of Makkah who fought against the Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) were more knowledgeable about the meaning of worship, tawheed, shirk, and thus Islaam, than the modern endorsers of so-called “tawassul” through the deceased.

In Conclusion

I hope that these simple lines have cleared some confusion about this matter. May Allaah bless you all and grant us understanding in His Religion.

May He grant us knowledge of what is right, and the humility, courage, patience, and strength needed to follow it with our hearts and limbs. And may He also grant us knowledge of what is wrong, and the humility, courage, patience, and strength needed to oppose it with our hearts and limbs!

And Allaah Most High knows best, may His Salaat and Salaam be upon His Final Messenger to Mankind.

 Recommended reading on the specific topic: “Kashf ash-Shubuhaat”, the text itself is very clear on the topic, loaded with Qur’aanic quotes. Read the entire text first before reading any lengthy explanations.

Posted November 7, 2010 by thesunnahway in Aqeedah